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Clinical

MSOT

Technology

Hemoglobin

Functional

Intelligent systems in interventional healthcare depend on the reliable perception of the environment. In this context, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has emerged as a non-invasive, functional imaging modality with great clinical potential. Current research focuses on converting the high-dimensional, not human-interpretable spectral data into the underlying functional information, specifically the blood oxygenation. One of the largely unexplored issues stalling clinical advances is the fact that the quantification problem is ambiguous, i.e. that radically different tissue parameter configurations could lead to almost identical photoacoustic spectra. In the present work, we tackle this problem with conditional Invertible Neural Networks (cINNs). Going beyond traditional point estimates, our network is used to compute an approximation of the conditional posterior density of tissue parameters given the measurement. To this end, an automatic mode detection algorithm extracts the plausible solution from the sample-based posterior. According to a comprehensive validation study based on both synthetic and real images, our approach is well-suited for exploring ambiguity in quantitative PAT.

Preclinical

MSOT

Inflammation

Musculoskeletal

Contrast agent dye

Molecular

Artificial peroxisomes (AP) with enzyme-mimetic catalytic activity and recruitment ability have drawn a great deal of attention in fabricating protocell systems for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating the inflammatory microenvironment, and reprogramming macrophages, which is of great potential in treating inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, a macrophage membrane-cloaked Cu-coordinated polyphthalocyanine-based AP (CuAP) is prepared with a macrocyclic conjugated polymerized network and embedded Cu-single atomic active center, which mimics the catalytic activity and coordination environment of natural superoxide dismutase and catalase, possesses the inflammatory recruitment ability of macrophages, and performs photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided treatment. The results of both in vitro cellular and in vivo animal experiments demonstrated that the CuAP under ultrasound and microbubbles could efficiently scavenge excess ROS in cells and tissues, modulate microenvironmental inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and arginase-1, and reprogram macrophages by polarization of M1 (proinflammatory phenotype) to M2 (anti-inflammatory phenotype). We believe this study offers a proof of concept for engineering multifaceted AP and a promising approach for a PAI-guided treatment platform for RA.

Preclinical

MSOT

Cancer

Digestive, Integumentary

Nanoparticle

Molecular

Biological imaging-guided targeted tumor therapy has been a soughtafter goal in the field of cancer diagnosis and treatment. To this end, we proposed a strategy to modulate surface plasmon resonance and endow WO3-x nanoparticles (NPs) with enzyme-like catalytic properties by doping Fe2+ in the structure of the NPs. Doping of the Fe2+ introduced oxygen vacancies into the structure of the NPs, inducing a red shift of the maximum absorption wavelength into the near-infrared II (NIR-II) region and enhancing the photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal properties of the NPs for more effective imaging-guided cancer therapy. Under NIR-II laser irradiation, the Fe-WO3-x NPs produced very strong NIR-II PA and photothermal effects, which significantly enhanced the PA imaging and photothermal treatment effects. On the other hand, Fe2+ in Fe-WO3-x could undergo Fenton reactions with H2O2 in the tumor tissue to generate ·OH for chemodynamic therapy. In addition, Fe-WO3-x can also catalyze the above reactions to produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce the oxidation of NADH to interfere with intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, thereby further improving the efficiency of cancer therapy. Specific imaging of tumor tissue and targeted synergistic therapy was achieved after ligation of a MUC1 aptamer to the surface of the Fe-WO3-x NPs by the complexing of -COOH in MUC1 with tungsten ions on the surface of the NPs. These results demonstrated that Fe-WO3-x NPs could be a promising diagnosis and therapeutic agent for cancer. Such a study opens up new avenues into the rational design of nanodiagnosis and treatment agents for NIR-II PA imaging and cancer therapy.

Clinical

MSOT

Inflammation

Integumentary

Hemoglobin, Lipids, Collagen

Functional

Objectives: To assess and compare molecular tissue changes at the entheses in patients with psoriasis (PsO), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and healthy controls (HC) in vivo using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) and to describe their relationship with clinical and ultrasound findings of enthesitis.
Methods: A cross-sectional study (MAPSA) in bDMARD-naïve PsA and PsO patients and HC was performed. Participants underwent clinical, ultrasonographic and MSOT examination of six entheses (lateral humeral epicondyle, distal patellar tendon attachment, Achilles tendon attachment). MSOT-measured haemoglobin (Hb), oxygen saturation (SO2), collagen, and lipid levels were quantified and mean differences between groups were calculated using linear mixed-effects models. MSOT-measured analytes were compared between entheses with and without clinical and ultrasound anomalies.
Results: Ninety participants were included (30 PsO, 30 PsA, 30 HC), 540 entheses were clinically assessed, and 540 ultrasound and 830 MSOT scans were obtained. Both PsA and PsO patients showed increased oxygenated Hb (PsA: p=0.003; PsO: p=0.054) and SO2 (PsA: p<0.001; Pso: p=0.001) levels and decreased collagen signals (PsA: p<0.001; PsO: <0.001) compared to HC, with more pronounced changes in PsA. Significantly lower collagen levels (p=0.01) and increased lipids (p=0.03) were recorded in tender entheses compared to non-tender ones. Erosions and enthesophytes on ultrasound were associated with significant differences in SO2 (p=0.014) and lipid signals (p=0.020), respectively. Conclusions: PsA and PsO patients exhibit an analogous metabolic pattern at the entheses that is exacerbated in the presence of inflammation. These findings support the notion of a psoriatic disease spectrum characterized by common immuno-metabolic tissue changes.

Preclinical

MSOT

Cancer

Immune

Nanoparticle

Functional

The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) reduces the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy against solid tumors. Here, a CAR T cell membrane-camouflaged nanocatalyst (ACSP@TCM) is prepared to augment CAR T cell therapy efficacy against solid tumors. ACSP@TCM is prepared by encapsulating core/shell Au/Cu2- xSe and 3-bromopyruvate with a CAR T cell membrane. It is demonstrated that the CAR T cell membrane camouflaging has much better-targeting effect than the homologous tumors cell membrane camouflaging. ACSP@TCM has an appealing synergistic chemodynamic/photothermal therapy (CDT/PTT) effect that can induce the immunogenic cell death (ICD) of NALM 6 cells. Moreover, 3-bromopyruvate can inhibit the efflux of lactic acid by inhibiting the glycolysis process, regulating the acidity of TME, and providing a more favorable environment for the survival of CAR T cells. In addition, the photoacoustic (PA) imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging performance can guide the ACSP@TCM-mediated tumor therapy. The results demonstrated that the ACSP@TCM significantly enhanced the CAR T cell therapy efficacy against NALM 6 solid tumor mass, and completely eliminated tumors. This work provides an effective tumor strategy for CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors.

Chen Z et al., Chem Soc Rev. 2024 May 13.

Preclinical

MSOT

Technology

Optoacoustic (OA) imaging offers powerful capabilities for interrogating biological tissues with rich optical absorption contrast while maintaining high spatial resolution for deep tissue observations. The spectrally distinct absorption of visible and near-infrared photons by endogenous tissue chromophores facilitates extraction of diverse anatomic, functional, molecular, and metabolic information from living tissues across various scales, from organelles and cells to whole organs and organisms. The primarily blood-related contrast and limited penetration depth of OA imaging have fostered the development of multimodal approaches to fully exploit the unique advantages and complementarity of the method. We review the recent hybridization efforts, including multimodal combinations of OA with ultrasound, fluorescence, optical coherence tomography, Raman scattering microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging as well as ionizing methods, such as X-ray computed tomography, single-photon-emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Considering that most molecules absorb light across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the OA interrogations can be extended to a large number of exogenously administered small molecules, particulate agents, and genetically encoded labels. This unique property further makes contrast moieties used in other imaging modalities amenable for OA sensing.

Li Y et al., J Biophotonics. 2024 May 8:e202400106.

Clinical

MSOT

Technology

Musculoskeletal

Hemoglobin

To date, the appropriate training required for the reproducible operation of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) is poorly discussed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the teachability of MSOT imaging. Five operators (two experienced and three inexperienced) performed repositioning imaging experiments. The inexperienced received the following introductions: personal supervision, video meeting, or printed introduction. The task was to image the exact same position on the calf muscle for seven times on five volunteers in two rounds of investigations. In the first session, operators used ultrasound guidance during measurements while using only photoacoustic data in the second session. The performance comparison was carried out with full-reference image quality measures to quantitatively assess the difference between repeated scans. The study demonstrates that given a personal supervision and hybrid ultrasound real-time imaging in MSOT measurements, inexperienced operators are able to achieve the same level as experienced operators in terms of repositioning accuracy.

Clinical

MSOT

Cancer

Digestive

Hemoglobin

Functional

Parotid lumps are a heterogeneous group of mainly benign but also malignant tumors. Preoperative imaging does not allow a differentiation between tumor types. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) may improve the preoperative diagnostics. In this first prospective pilot trial the ability of MSOT to discriminate between the two most frequent benign parotid tumors, pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and Warthin tumor (WT) as well as to normal parotid tissue was explored. Six wavelengths (700, 730, 760, 800, 850, 900 nm) and the parameters deoxygenated (HbR), oxygenated (HbO2), total hemoglobin (HbT), and saturation of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed. Ten patients with PA and fourteen with WT were included (12/12 female/male; median age: 51 years). For PA, the mean values for all measured wave lengths as well as for the hemoglobin parameters were different for the tumors compared to the healthy parotid (all p < 0.05). The mean MSOT parameters were all significantly higher (all p < 0.05) in the WT compared to healthy parotid gland except for HbT and sO2. Comparing both tumors directly, the mean values of MSOT parameters were not different between PA and WT (all p > 0.05). Differences were seen for the maximal MSOT parameters. The maximal tumor values for 900 nm, HbR, HbT, and sO2 were lower in PA than in WT (all p < 0.05). This preliminary MSOT parotid tumor imaging study showed clear differences for PA or WT compared to healthy parotid tissue. Some MSOT characteristics of PA and WT were different but needed to be explored in larger studies.

Clinical

MSOT