Development of nanotheranostic agents with near-infrared (NIR) absorption offers an effective tool for fighting malignant diseases. Lanthanide ion neodymium (Nd3+)-based nanomaterials, due to the maximum absorption at around 800 nm and unique optical properties, have caught great attention as potential agents for simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we employed an active nanoplatform based on gadolinium-ion-doped NdVO4 nanoplates (NdVO4:Gd3+ NPs) for multiple-imaging-assisted photothermal therapy. These NPs exhibited enhanced NIR absorption and excellent biocompatibility after being grafted with polydopamine (pDA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers on their surface. Upon expose to an 808 nm laser, these resulting NPs were able to trigger hyperthermia rapidly and cause photo-destruction of cancer cells. In a xenograft tumor model, tumor growth was also significantly inhibited by these photothermal agents under NIR laser irradiation. Owing to the multicomponent nanostructures, we demonstrated these nanoagents as being novel contrast agents for in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, X-ray computed tomography (CT), photoacoustic (PA) imaging, and second biological window fluorescent imaging of tumor models. Thus, we believe that this new kind of nanotherapeutic will benefit the development of emerging nanosystems for biological imaging and cancer therapy.