Artificial peroxisomes (AP) with enzyme-mimetic catalytic activity and recruitment ability have drawn a great deal of attention in fabricating protocell systems for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating the inflammatory microenvironment, and reprogramming macrophages, which is of great potential in treating inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, a macrophage membrane-cloaked Cu-coordinated polyphthalocyanine-based AP (CuAP) is prepared with a macrocyclic conjugated polymerized network and embedded Cu-single atomic active center, which mimics the catalytic activity and coordination environment of natural superoxide dismutase and catalase, possesses the inflammatory recruitment ability of macrophages, and performs photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided treatment. The results of both in vitro cellular and in vivo animal experiments demonstrated that the CuAP under ultrasound and microbubbles could efficiently scavenge excess ROS in cells and tissues, modulate microenvironmental inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and arginase-1, and reprogram macrophages by polarization of M1 (proinflammatory phenotype) to M2 (anti-inflammatory phenotype). We believe this study offers a proof of concept for engineering multifaceted AP and a promising approach for a PAI-guided treatment platform for RA.