Phototherapy, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT), refers to the therapeutic strategy using a visible or near-infrared (NIR) laser to generate free radicals or heat for noninvasive and localized tumor treatment. However, limited by the low photoconversion efficiency of therapeutic agents, a single treatment method can hardly lead to complete tumor ablation, even when enhancing the power density of the laser and/or prolonging the irradiation duration. In this work, copper ion and ruthenium complex codoped polydopamine nanoparticles (Cu(II)/LRu/PDA NPs) are designed for PDT/PTT dual-mode therapy. The doped LRu in the NPs can generate reactive oxygen species under visible laser irradiation and enable PDT. Because of the strong absorption in the NIR region, PDA can not only generate heat for PTT under irradiation but also be used for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging. Meanwhile, the doping of Cu(II) in the NPs through the coordination with PDA facilitates T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus, MR/PAT imaging-guided PDT/PTT dual-mode therapy is achieved. The in vivo experiments indicate that the Cu(II)/LRu/PDA NPs can accumulate in HeLa tumors with a retention rate up to 8.34%ID/g. MR/PAT imaging can clearly identify the location and boundary of the tumors, permitting precise guidance for phototherapy. Under the combined effect of PDT and PTT, a complete ablation of HeLa tumors is achieved. The current work provides an alternative nanoplatform for performing PDT/PTT dual-mode therapy, which can be further guided by MR/PAT imaging.