Tyrosinase (TYR) is an important biomarker of melanoma. The exploration of fluorescent pr-obes-based composites is beneficial to build an integrative platform for the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. Herein, a multifunctional nanocomposite IOBOH@BSA activated by TYR is developed for selective imaging and ablation of melanoma. The chemical structure of IOBOH enables the fluorescence (FL) imaging activated by TYR, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, and photodynamic-photothermal activity by regulating the balance between radiative decay and non-radiative decay. IOBOH combined with bovine serum albumin (IOBOH@BSA) presents the response to TYR and realizes FL imaging with mitochondria-targeting in melanoma. Moreover, IOBOH@BSA shows excellent photothermal ability and is applied for PA imaging. After IOBOH@BSA is activated by TYR, the singlet oxygen generation increases obviously. IOBOH@BSA can realize TYR-activated imaging and photodynamic-photothermal therapy of melanoma. The development of TYR-activated multifunctional nanocomposites promotes the precise imaging and improves the therapeutic effect of melanoma.