Temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSLs) have received constant attention due to the release of contents around the physiological temperature, which holds great potential in the treatment of tumors. However, the development of TSLs is limited by the long-term biotoxicity and low photothermal conversion efficiency of heat-generation materials. In this study, we develop a new D–A (donor–acceptor) structure NIR absorbing dye (C720) which exhibits a high photothermal conversion efficiency (62%), good photostability, and photothermal reproducibility. Then C720 is doped in the lipid bilayer and DOX (doxorubicin) is wrapped in the core of temperature sensitive liposomes to construct a C720 and DOX-loaded thermosensitive nanoplatform (CDTSL). The as-prepared CDTSL achieves NIR light controlled drug release and can be applied for photoacoustic imaging. In vitro and in vivo studies confirm that CDTSL exhibits high tumor suppressive efficiency by synergistic photothermal therapy and chemotherapy. Our research provides fundamental insights for the rational design and preparation of a promising nanoplatform for photoacoustic imaging and chemo-photothermal therapy.