Developing an effective theranostic nanoplatform remains a great challenge for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here, BiOI@Bi2S3@BSA (bovine serum albumin) semiconductor heterojunction nanoparticles (SHNPs) for triple‐combination radio/photodynamic/photothermal cancer therapy and multimodal computed tomography/photoacoustic (CT/PA) bioimaging are reported. On the one hand, SHNPs possess strong X‐ray attenuation capability since they contain high‐Z elements, and thus they are anticipated to be a very competent candidate as radio‐sensitizing materials for radiotherapy enhancement. On the other hand, as a semiconductor, the as‐prepared SHNPs offer an extra approach for reactive oxygen species generation based on electron–hole pair under the irradiation of X‐ray through the photodynamic therapy process. This X‐ray excited photodynamic therapy obviously has better penetration depth in bio‐tissue. What’s more, the SHNPs also possess well photothermal conversion efficiency for photothermal therapy, because Bi2S3 is a thin band semiconductor with strong near‐infrared absorption that can cause local overheat. In vivo tumor ablation studies show that synergistic radio/photodynamic/photothermal therapy achieves more significant therapeutic effect than any single treatment. In addition, with the strong X‐ray attenuation and high near‐infrared absorption, the as‐obtained SHNPs can also be applied as a multimodal contrast agent in CT/PA imaging.

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