Monitoring brain responses to ultrasonic interventions is becoming an important pillar of a growing number of applications employing acoustic waves to actuate and cure the brain. Optical interrogation of living tissues provides a unique means for retrieving functional and molecular information related to brain activity and disease-specific biomarkers. The hybrid optoacoustic imaging methods have further enabled deep-tissue imaging with optical contrast at high spatial and temporal resolution. The marriage between light and sound thus brings together the highly complementary advantages of both modalities toward high precision interrogation, stimulation, and therapy of the brain with strong impact in the fields of ultrasound neuromodulation, gene and drug delivery, or noninvasive treatments of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we elaborate on current advances in optical and optoacoustic monitoring of ultrasound interventions. We describe the main principles and mechanisms underlying each method before diving into the corresponding biomedical applications. We identify areas of improvement as well as promising approaches with clinical translation potential.