Despite its promising potential in cancer treatment, synergistic photothermal/chemodynamic therapy remains underdeveloped with regard to the utilization of metal-organic materials under second near-infrared (NIR-II) laser excitation. Herein, we report a three-dimensional network constructed via the metal coordination between catechol-functionalized aza-boron dipyrromethenes and iron ions (ABFe), which was further encapsulated by F127 to obtain ABFe nanoparticles (NPs) for combined photothermal/chemodynamic therapy. ABFe NPs exhibited intense absorption in the NIR-II range and negligible fluorescence. Upon 1064 nm laser irradiation, ABFe NPs showed high photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE = 55.0%) and excellent photothermal stability. The results of electron spin resonance spectra and o-phenylenediamine chromaticity spectrophotometry proved that ABFe NPs were capable of generating harmful reactive oxygen species from hydrogen peroxide for chemodynamic therapy, which was promoted by photothermal performance. Notably, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the great potential of ABFe NPs in photoacoustic imaging and photothermal-enhanced chemodynamic therapy under NIR-II laser irradiation. Therefore, the current work presents a prospective NIR-II excitation therapeutic nanomedicine for combination therapy, offering a novel strategy for simultaneously achieving extended NIR absorption of aza-BODIPY and enhanced chemodynamic therapy with metal-organic materials.