Integrating multifunctional nanostructures capable of radiotherapy and photothermal ablation is an emerging alternative in killing cancer cells. In this work, we report a novel plasmonic heterostructure formed by decorating AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) onto the surfaces of CuS nanosheets (AuPt@CuS NSs) as a highly effective nanotheranostic toward dual-modal photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging and enhanced synergistic radiophotothermal therapy. These heterostructures can confer higher photothermal conversion efficiency via the local electromagnetic enhancement as well as a greater radiation dose deposition in the form of glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species generation. As a result, the depth of tissue penetration is improved, and hypoxia of the tumor microenvironment is alleviated. With synergistic enhancement in the efficacy of photothermal ablation and radiotherapy, the tumor can be eliminated without later recurrence. It is believed that these multifunctional heterostructures will play a vital role in future oncotherapy with the enhanced synergistic effects of radiotherapy and photothermal ablation under the guided imaging of a potential dual-modality system.