Two key concerns exist in contemporary cancer chemotherapy in clinics: limited therapeutic efficiency and substantial side effects in patients. In recent years, researchers have been investigating revolutionary cancer treatment techniques and photo-thermal therapy (PTT) has been proposed by many scholars. A drug for photothermal cancer treatment was synthesized using the hydrothermal method, which has a high light-to-heat conversion efficiency. It may also be utilized as a clear multi-modality bioimaging platform for photoacoustic imaging (PAI), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When compared to single-modality imaging, multi-modality imaging delivers far more thorough and precise details for cancer diagnosis. Furthermore, gold-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) have an exceptionally high target recognition for tumor cells. The gold-doped UCNPs, in particular, are non-toxic to normal tissues, endowing the as-prepared medications with outstanding therapeutic efficacy but exceptionally low side effects. These findings may encourage the creation of fresh effective imaging-guided approaches to meet the goal of photothermal cancer therapy.