Two key concerns exist in contemporary cancer chemotherapy in clinic: limited therapeutic efficiency and substantial side effects in patients. In recent years, researchers have been investigating a revolutionary cancer treatment technique, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed by many scholars. A drug for photodynamic cancer treatment was synthesized using the hydrothermal method, which has a high efficiency to release reactive oxygen species (ROS). It may also be utilized as a clear multi-modality bioimaging platform for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) due to its photothermal effect, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When compared to single-modality imaging, multi-modality imaging delivers far more thorough and precise details for cancer diagnosis. Furthermore, Au-doped up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have an exceptionally high luminous intensity. The Au-doped UCNPs, in particular, are non-toxic to tissues without laser at an 808 nm wavelength, endowing the as-prepared medications with outstanding therapeutic efficacy but exceptionally low side effects. These findings may encourage fresh effective imaging-guided approaches to meet the goal of photodynamic cancer therapy to be created.