Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based nanocatalytic tumor therapy is alluring owing to the capability to generate highly cytotoxic ∙OH radicals from tumoral H2O2. However, the antitumor efficacy is highly dependent on the radical generation efficiency and challenged by the high levels of antioxidative glutathione (GSH) in cancer cells. Herein, we report an IR-780 decorated, GSH-depleting Fe3O4@MIL-100 (IFM) nanocomposite for photo-enhanced tumor catalytic therapy by extensive production of ∙OH, which is realized by an integration of excellent peroxidase-like activity of IFM, selective upregulation of tumoral H2O2 by β-lapachone, and localized hyperthermia by near infrared light irradiation. IFM shows potentiated antiproliferative effect in 4T1 cancer cells by ∙OH overproduction and glutathione scavenging, inducing intracellular redox dyshomeostasis and cell death by concurrent apoptosis and ferroptosis. In vivo antitumor investigation further demonstrates photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging-guided combinational therapy with a tumor inhibition rate of 96.4%. This study provides a strategy of photo-enhanced nanocatalytic tumor therapy by tumor-specific H2O2 amplification and hyperthermia.