Tumor microenvironment (TME)-activatable phototheranostics is highly desirable in cancer management but still remains challenging for clinical applications owing to the lack of multifunctional theranostic agents and the limited tissue penetration depth. Reported here is an “all-in-one” phototheranostic platform based on near-infrared II (NIR-II) dual-plasmonic Au@Cu2- x Se core-shell nanocrystals (dpGCS NCs) for combined photoacoustic (PA)/photothermal (PT) imaging-guided chemodynamic therapy (CDT)/photocatalytic therapy (PCT)/photothermal therapy (PTT) all triggered by a single NIR-II laser. The dpGCS NCs feature excellent NIR-II plasmonic and PT properties, which guarantee their capabilities of NIR-II PA and PT imaging for real-time visual observation of tumor size and location during cancer treatment. Additionally, the TME-activated in situ •OH production via dpGCS NC-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction is further enhanced by the NIR-II irradiation, while photoexcited plasmonic hole-induced formation of extra •OH is also evidenced for PCT. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments confirm remarkable therapeutic efficacy of the present phototheranostic platform under NIR-II laser through the CDT/PCT/PTT trimodal combination therapy, achieving complete inhibition of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice after administration of dpGCS NCs plus a single NIR-II laser irradiation. This work provides a distinctive paradigm for the development of NIR-II phototheranostic platforms for imaging-guided cancer therapy using a single laser.