Bismuth sulfide is widely used as an n-type semiconductor material in photocatalytic reactions. However, bismuth sulfide has poor absorption in the near-infrared region and low charge separation efficiency, limiting its application in phototherapy and sonodynamic therapy (SDT). In this study, we successfully synthesized an “all-in-one” phototheranostic nanoplatform, namely Bi2S3-x-Au@HA, based on a single second near-infrared (NIR-II) light-responsive Schottky-type Bi2S3-x-Au heterostructure for photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided SDT-enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT)/photothermal therapy (PTT). Bi2S3-x-Au@HA exhibits excellent NIR-II plasmonic and photothermal properties, rendering it with NIR-II PA imaging capabilities for accurate diagnosis. Additionally, the high-density sulfur vacancies constructed on the Bi2S3 surface cause it to possess a reduced band gap (1.21 eV) that can act as an electron trap. Using the density functional theory, we confirmed that the light and ultrasound-induced electrons are more likely to aggregate on the Au nanoparticle surface through interfacial self-assembly, which promotes electron-hole separation and enhances photocatalytic activity with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. With a further modification of hyaluronic acid (HA), Bi2S3-x-Au@HA can selectively target cancer cells through HA and CD44 protein interactions. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that Bi2S3-x-Au@HA effectively suppressed tumor growth through SDT-enhanced PTT/PDT under a single NIR-II laser and ultrasound irradiation with negligible toxicity. Our findings provide a framework for fabricating Schottky-type heterostructures as single NIR-II light-responsive nanotheranostic agents for PA imaging-guided cancer phototherapy.