Deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brains of rodents can be analysed by invasive intravital microscopy on a submillimetre scale, or via whole-brain images from modalities lacking the resolution or molecular specificity to accurately characterize Aβ pathologies. Here we show that large-field multifocal illumination fluorescence microscopy and panoramic volumetric multispectral optoacoustic tomography can be combined to longitudinally assess Aβ deposits in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. We used fluorescent Aβ-targeted probes (the luminescent conjugated oligothiophene HS-169 and the oxazine-derivative AOI987) to transcranially detect Aβ deposits in the cortex of APP/PS1 and arcAβ mice with single-plaque resolution (8 μm) and across the whole brain (including the hippocampus and the thalamus, which are inaccessible by conventional intravital microscopy) at sub-150 μm resolutions. Two-photon microscopy, light-sheet microscopy and immunohistochemistry of brain-tissue sections confirmed the specificity and regional distributions of the deposits. High-resolution multiscale optical and optoacoustic imaging of Aβ deposits across the entire brain in rodents thus facilitates the in vivo study of Aβ accumulation by brain region and by animal age and strain.