Mesoporous carbon nanospheres containing porphyrin‐like metal centers (denoted as “PMCS”) are successfully synthesized by the pyrolysis of an imidazolate framework using a mesoporous‐silica protection strategy. The PMCS allow infrared and photoacoustic imaging and synergetic photothermal therapy/photodynamic therapy derived from the porphyrin‐like moieties, offering the possibility of real‐time monitoring of therapeutic processes and image‐guided precise conformal phototherapy. PMCS thus represent a novel multifunctional theranostic platform for improved treatment efficiencies.