Sub-optimal intra-tumor accumulation and poorly controllable release of encapsulated drugs remain unresolved challenges hampering further advancement of nanomedicines on cancer therapy. Herein, we conceived near infrared (NIR) laser-triggered transformable BiS@HSA/DTX multiple nanorods (mNRs), which were made of small bundles of bismuth sulfide nanorods (BiS NRs) coated by docetaxel (DTX)-inlaid human serum albumin (HSA). The BiS@HSA/DTX mNRs had a lateral size of approximately 100 nm and efficiently accumulated in the tumor microenvironment upon systemic administration in tumor-bearing nude mice. NIR laser irradiation of the tumor area caused rapid disassembly of the BiS@HSA/DTX mNRs into individual HSA-coated BiS nanorods (BiS@HSA iNRs) and triggered the release of DTX from the HSA corona, due to the local temperature increase generated by BiS NRs via photothermal effect. The laser-induced transformation into BiS@HSA iNRs facilitated their penetration and increased the retention time in tumor. The spatiotemporal delivery behavior of the BiS@HSA/DTX mNRs could be monitored by photoacoustic/computed tomography dual-modal imaging in vivo. Furthermore, because of the excellent photothermal conversion properties of BiS NRs and laser-triggered DTX release from BiS@HSA/DTX mNRs, efficient tumor combinatorial therapy was achieved via concurrent hyperthermia and chemotherapy in mice treated with BiS@HSA/DTX mNRs upon NIR laser irradiation.