Early identification and treatment of breast cancer is very important for breast conserving therapy and to improve the prognosis and survival rates of patients. Multifunctional nanotheranostic agents are of particular importance in the field of precise nanomedicine, since they can augment the visualization and treatment of cancer. We developed a novel Bi2S3 nanoparticle coated with a hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified tantalum oxide (TaOx) nanoshell (Bi2S3@TaOx-HA). The as-prepared core/shell nanoparticles exhibited a high Bi2S3 nanoparticle loading efficiency of (67 wt %). The TaOx nanoshell exhibited excellent biocompatibility and computed tomography imaging capacity, and the Bi2S3 nanoparticles exhibited an excellent photothermal transducing performance and computed tomography (CT) and photoacoustic imaging capacity. As a result of these merits, the Bi2S3@TaOx core-shell nanoparticles can act as a theranostic agent for CT/photoacoustically monitored enhanced photothermal therapy. These findings will evoke new interest in future cancer therapeutic strategies based on biocompatible functional nanomaterials.