Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of malignant tumors under the interference of complex and diverse tumor microenvironments (TMEs) have become the focus of research. Herein, an innovative TME-activated biomimetic nanocatalyst with quad-modal imaging capabilities of second near-infrared (NIR-II) “turn-on” fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and photothermal imaging (PTI) was designed and developed for self-enhanced photothermal/chemodynamic synergistic therapy. The catalyst was fabricated by loading glucose oxidase (GOD) and Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) on MnO2 nanosheets and coating them with a 4T1 cell membrane (AMG@CM), which enables them to successfully escape immune clearance and have appealing tumor-targeting ability and biocompatibility. The NIR-II fluorescence at 1130 nm of Ag2S QDs quenched by MnO2 could be recovered in vivo through the glutathione (GSH)-induced degradation of MnO2, enabling excellent TME-responsive tumor visualization. Simultaneously, the released Mn2+ can catalyze H2O2 to produce abundant hydroxyl radicals (•OH), achieving photothermal synergistically enhanced chemodynamic therapy (CDT) under NIR-II radiation. Moreover, the CDT could be self-enhanced by GOD due to the extra produced H2O2. This work demonstrates a novel and highly efficient multimodal imaging-guided integrated treatment strategy for dual-enhanced CDT tumor precise diagnosis and treatment.