Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by excessive proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) and accumulation of inflammatory cytokines. Exploring the suppression of RASFs and modulation of the RA microenvironment is considered a comprehensive strategy for RA. In this work, specifically activated nanoagents (MAHI NGs) based on the hypoxic and weakly acidic RA microenvironment are developed to achieve a second near-infrared fluorescence (NIR-II FL)/photoacoustic (PA) dual-model imaging-guided multi-treatment. Due to optimal size, the MAHI NGs passively accumulate in the diseased joint region and undergo rapid responsive degradation, precisely releasing functionalized components: endogenous melanin-nanoparticles (MNPs), hydrogen gas (H2), and indocyanine green (ICG). The released MNPs play a crucial role in ablating RASFs within the RA microenvironment through photothermal therapy (PTT) guided by accurate PA imaging. However, the regional hyperthermia generated by PTT may exacerbate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammatory response following cell lysis. Remarkably, under the acidic microenvironment, the controlled release of H2 exhibits precise synergistic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects with MNPs. Moreover, the ICG, the second near-infrared dye currently approved for clinical use, possesses excellent NIR-II FL imaging properties that facilitate the diagnosis of deep tissue diseases and provide the right time-point for PTT.