Carboxylesterase (CE) is crucial in metabolizing ester-containing biomolecules and is particularly significant in liver metabolic diseases. Herein, we present the first activatable NIRF/PA dual-mode imaging probe QHD-CE for detection of CE in vitro and in vivo. QHD-CE displays excellent sensitivity and selectivity for CE with a high reaction efficiency (∼90 min). By utilizing QHD-CE, the dynamic changes of CE in drug-induced liver injury and diabetic mice models were monitored.