Super-resolution optoacoustic imaging of microvascular structures deep in mammalian tissues has so far been impeded by strong absorption from densely-packed red blood cells. Here we devised 5 µm biocompatible dichloromethane-based microdroplets exhibiting several orders of magnitude higher optical absorption than red blood cells at near-infrared wavelengths, thus enabling single-particle detection in vivo. We demonstrate non-invasive three-dimensional microangiography of the mouse brain beyond the acoustic diffraction limit (<20 µm resolution). Blood flow velocity quantification in microvascular networks and light fluence mapping was also accomplished. In mice affected by acute ischemic stroke, the multi-parametric multi-scale observations enabled by super-resolution and spectroscopic optoacoustic imaging revealed significant differences in microvascular density, flow and oxygen saturation in ipsi- and contra-lateral brain hemispheres. Given the sensitivity of optoacoustics to functional, metabolic and molecular events in living tissues, the new approach paves the way for non-invasive microscopic observations with unrivaled resolution, contrast and speed.