Cylindrical organs, e.g., blood vessels, airways, and intestines, are ubiquitous structures in biomedical optical imaging analysis. Image segmentation of these structures serves as a vital step in tissue physiology analysis. Traditional model-driven segmentation methods seek to fit the structure by constructing a corresponding topological geometry based on domain knowledge. Classification-based deep learning methods neglect the geometric features of the cylindrical structure and therefore cannot ensure the continuity of the segmentation surface. In this paper, by treating the cylindrical structures as a 3D graph, we introduce a novel contour-based graph neural network for 3D cylindrical structure segmentation in biomedical optical imaging. Our proposed method, which we named CylinGCN, adopts a novel learnable framework that extracts semantic features and complex topological relationships in the 3D volumetric data to achieve continuous and effective 3D segmentation. Our CylinGCN consists of a multiscale 3D semantic feature extractor for extracting inter-frame multiscale semantic features, and a residual graph convolutional network (GCN) contour generator that combines the semantic features and cylindrical topological priors to generate segmentation contours. We tested the CylinGCN framework on two types of optical tomographic imaging data, small animal whole body photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and endoscopic airway optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the results show that CylinGCN achieves state-of-the-art performance. Code will be released at