Organic small-molecule contrast agents have attracted considerable attention in the field of multispectral optoacoustic imaging, but their weak optoacoustic performance resulted from relatively low extinction coefficient and poor water solubility restrains their widespread applications. Herein, we address these limitations by constructing supramolecular assemblies based on cucurbituril (CB). Two dixanthene-based chromophores (DXP and DXBTZ) are synthesized as the model guest compounds, and then included in CB to prepare host-guest complexes. The obtained DXP-CB and DXBTZ-CB display red-shifted and increased absorption as well as decreased fluorescence, thereby leading to a substantial enhancement in optoacoustic performance. Biological application potential of DXBTZ-CB is investigated after co-assembly with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Benefiting from the excellent optoacoustic property of DXBTZ-CB and the CD44-targeting feature of CSA, the formulated DXBTZ-CB/CSA can effectively detect and diagnose subcutaneous tumors, orthotopic bladder tumors, lymphatic metastasis of tumors and ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in mouse models with multispectral optoacoustic imaging.