Here, we present a precision cancer nanomedicine based on Bi(2)S(3) nanorods (NRs) designed specifically for multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT)/X-ray computed tomography (CT)-guided photothermal therapy (PTT). The as-prepared Bi(2)S(3) NRs possess ideal photothermal effect and contrast enhancement in MSOT/CT bimodal imaging. These features make them simultaneously act as “satellite” and “precision targeted weapon” for the visual guide to destruction of tumors in vivo, realizing effective tumor destruction and metastasis inhibition after intravenous injection. In addition, toxicity screening confirms that Bi(2)S(3) NRs have well biocompatibility. This triple-modality-nanoparticle approach enables simultaneously precise cancer therapy and therapeutic monitoring.