Photodynamic therapy (PDT) still faces great challenges with suitable photosensitizers, oxygen supply, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, especially in the tumor microenvironment, feathering hypoxia, and high glucose metabolism. Herein, a carbon dots (CDs)-based bifunctional nanosystem (MnZ@Au), acting as photosensitizer and nanozyme with cascading glucose oxidase (GOx)- and catalase (CAT)-like reactivity, was developed for improving hypoxia and regulating glucose metabolism to enhance PDT. The MnZ@Au was constructed using Mn-doped CDs (Mn-CDs) as a core and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a shell to form a hybrid (MnZ), followed by anchoring ultrasmall Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the surface of MnZ through the ion exchange and in situ reduction methods. MnZ@Au catalyzed glucose consumption and oxygen generation by cascading GOx- and CAT-like nanozyme reactions, which was further enhanced by its own photothermal properties. In vitro and in vivo studies also confirmed that MnZ@Au greatly improved CDs penetration, promoted ROS accumulation, and enhanced PDT efficacy, leading to efficient tumor growth inhibition in the breast tumor model. Besides, MnZ@Au enabled photoacoustic (PA) imaging to provide a mapping of Mn-CDs distribution and oxygen saturation, showing the real-time catalytic process of MnZ@Au in vivo. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) imaging also validated the decreased glucose uptake in tumors treated by MnZ@Au. Therefore, the integrated design provided a promising strategy to utilize and regulate the tumor microenvironment, promote penetration, enhance PDT, and finally prevent tumor deterioration.