Microbubbles have already reached clinical practice as ultrasound contrast agents for angiography. However, modification of the bubbles’ shell is needed to produce probes for ultrasound and multimodal (fluorescence/photoacoustic) imaging methods in combination with theranostics (diagnostics and therapeutics). In the present work, hybrid structures based on microbubbles with an air core and a shell composed of bovine serum albumin, albumin-coated gold nanoparticles, and clinically available photodynamic dyes (zinc phthalocyanine, indocyanine green) were shown to achieve multimodal imaging for potential applications in photodynamic therapy. Microbubbles with an average size of 1.5 ± 0.3 μm and concentration up to 1.2 × 109 microbubbles/mL were obtained and characterized. The introduction of the dye into the system reduced the solution’s surface tension, leading to an increase in the concentration and stability of bubbles. The combination of gold nanoparticles and photodynamic dyes’ influence on the fluorescent signal and probes’ stability is described. The potential use of the obtained probes in biomedical applications was evaluated using fluorescence tomography, raster-scanning optoacoustic microscopy and ultrasound response measurements using a medical ultrasound device at the frequency of 33 MHz. The results demonstrate the impact of microbubbles’ stabilization using gold nanoparticle/photodynamic dye hybrid structures to achieve probe applications in theranostics.