Gastrointestinal disease is prevalent and broad, manifesting itself in a variety of ways, including inflammation, fibrosis, infection, and cancer. However, historically, diagnostic technologies have exhibited limitations, especially with regard to diagnostic uncertainty. Despite development of newly emerging technologies such as optoacoustic imaging, many recent advancements have focused on improving upon pre-existing modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endoscopy. These advancements include utilization of machine learning models, biomarkers, new technological applications such as diffusion weighted imaging, and new techniques such as transrectal ultrasound. This review discusses assessment of disease processes using imaging strategies for the detection and monitoring of inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer in the context of gastrointestinal disease. Specifically, we include ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis, celiac disease, graft vs. host disease, intestinal fibrosis, colorectal stricture, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. We address some of the most recent and promising advancements for improvement of gastrointestinal imaging, including unique discussions of such advancements with regard to imaging of fibrosis and differentiation between similar disease processes.

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