Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication in patients with diabetes, whose expansion process is closely related to oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia. Herein, we report a chitosan-targeted dagliflozin-loaded melanin nanoparticle (CSMDNPs) that can selectively accumulate in injured kidneys, reduce blood glucose, and alleviate the oxidative stress-induced damage. CSMDNPs possess good dispersion and physiological stability, responsive release at acidic pH, and strong scavenging activities for various reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen radicals. Moreover, in vitro experiments confirm that CSMDNPs have good biocompatibility, enable targeted uptake in NRK-52E renal tubular cells, and also well alleviate high glucose-induced oxidative stress. In the STZ-induced DN model, CSMDNPs exhibit high targeting distribution and retention in the damaged kidneys of DN mice according to photoacoustic imaging. At the end of CSMDNPs treatment, DN mice show a decrease in fasting blood glucose and a return to near-normal urine and blood indices. H&E, PAS, and masson pathological staining also indicates that CSMDNPs significantly inhibit the expansion of renal interstitium, glycogen, and collagen deposition, showing excellent therapeutic effects. In addition, melanin acts as both drug carrier and antioxidant without exogenous carrier introduction, exhibiting better biosafety and translational prospects.