It is of great importance in drug delivery to fabricate multifunctional nanocarriers with intelligent targeting properties, for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, hollow‐structured CuS@Cu2S@Au nanoshell/satellite nanoparticles are designed and synthesized for enhanced photothermal therapy and photoswitchable targeting theranostics. The remarkably improved photothermal conversion efficiency of CuS@Cu2S@Au under 808 nm near‐infrared (NIR) laser irradiation can be explained by the reduced bandgap and more circuit paths for electron transitions for CuS and Cu2S modified with Au nanoparticles, as calculated by the Vienna ab initio simulation package, based on density functional theory. By modification of thermal‐isomerization RGD targeting molecules and thermally sensitive copolymer on the surface of nanoparticles, the transition of the shielded/unshielded mode of RGD (Arg‐Gly‐Asp) targeting molecules and shrinking of the thermally sensitive polymer by NIR photoactivation can realize a photoswitchable targeting effect. After loading an anticancer drug doxorubicin in the cavity of CuS@Cu2S@Au, the antitumor therapy efficacy is greatly enhanced by combining chemo‐ and photothermal therapy. The reported nanohybrid can also act as a photoacoustic imaging agent and an NIR thermal imaging agent for real‐time imaging, which provides a versatile platform for multifunctional theranostics and stimuli‐responsive targeted cancer therapy.