Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent idiopathic inflammatory disease which causes such complications as intestinal perforation, obstruction, and bleeding, and thus deleteriously impacting people’s normal work and quality of life. Hence, accurate diagnosis of UC is crucial in terms of planning optimal treatment plan. Herein, a pH/reactive oxygen species (ROS) dual-responsive nanosystem (BM@EP) is developed for UC’s detection and therapy. BM@EP is composed of a chromophore-drug dyad and the enteric coating. The chromophore-drug dyad (BOD-XT-DHM) is synthesized by linking the chromophore (BOD-XT-BOH) and a flavonoid drug (dihydromyricetin DHM) through boronate ester bond. The enteric coating includes Eudragit S100 and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), the former is commonly employed as a pH-dependent polymer coating excipient so as to attain colon-targeted delivery, and the latter has been widely used as an excipient for the controlled-extended release. After oral administration, BM@EP delivers the dyad (BOD-XT-DHM) into the colon and releases the dyad molecules by being triggered by the alkaline pH in t colon, thereafter upon being stimulated by overexpressed H2 O2 in the inflamed colon, the boronate bond in the dyad is broken down and correspondingly the drug DHM is released for UC therapy, simultaneously the chromophore is released for near-infrared second window (NIR-II) fluorescence and optoacoustic imaging for UC diagnosis and recovery evaluation.