As problems with the overuse of radical prostate cancer (PCa) treatment are increasingly exposed, focal therapy represents the direction of low- or intermediate-risk PCa management in the future. However, inaccurate diagnosis and low controllability of focal therapy hinder its clinical translation. In this study, we develop simple structural cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (cRGD) peptide-modified and indocyanine green (ICG)-loaded microbubbles (cRGD-ICG-MBs) for ultrasound-photoacoustic imaging and multi-synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT) to address the above problems. Precise PCa diagnosis is achieved by molecular ultrasound imaging. cRGD-targeting and low-frequency ultrasound with an amplitude of 500 kPa convert MBs into nanoparticles for enhanced ICG delivery. A low-frequency 2500-kPa amplitude ultrasound enables temporary vasculature destruction, which minimizes heat loss during PTT. Specifically, ICG in the tumor region is 14-fold higher than the control, resulting in satisfactory PTT. Our study highlights that this theranostic strategy possesses considerable clinical translational potential, especially in mini-invasive and individualized PCa therapy.

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