Immunotherapy holds great promise for patients undergoing tumor treatment. However, the clinical effect of immunotherapy is limited because of tumor immunogenicity and its immunosuppressive microenvironment. Herein, the metal-organic framework (MIL-100) loaded with chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone (MTO) was combined with photothermal-chemotherapy for enhancing immunogenic cell death. MIL-100 loaded with MTO and hyaluronic acid as nanoparticles (MMH NPs) yielded an NP with two therapeutic properties (photothermal and chemotherapy) with dual imaging modes (photoacoustic and thermal). When MMH NPs were coinjected with an anti-OX40 antibody in colorectal cancer, the highest antitumor efficacy and a robust immune effect were achieved. This work provides a novel combined therapeutic strategy, which will hold great promise in future tumor therapy.

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