Optical imaging in the second near infrared region (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) provides higher resolution and deeper penetration depth for accurate and real-time vascular anatomy, blood dynamics, and function information, effectively contributing to the early diagnosis and curative effect assessment of vascular anomalies. Currently, NIR-II optical imaging demonstrates encouraging results including long-term monitoring of vascular injury and regeneration, real-time feedback of blood perfusion, tracking of lymphatic metastases, and imaging-guided surgery. This review summarizes the latest progresses of NIR-II optical imaging for angiography including fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The development of current NIR-II fluorescence, PA, and OCT probes (i.e., single-walled carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, rare earth doped nanoparticles, noble metal-based nanostructures, organic dye-based probes, and semiconductor polymer nanoparticles), highlighting probe optimization regarding high brightness, longwave emission, and biocompatibility through chemical modification or nanotechnology, is first introduced. The application of NIR-II probes in angiography based on the classification of peripheral vascular, cerebrovascular, tumor vessel, and cardiovascular, is then reviewed. Major challenges and opportunities in the NIR-II optical imaging for vascular imaging are finally discussed.

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