Photoacoustic (PA) imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window exhibits enhanced deep-tissue imaging capability. Likely, cancer therapy in the NIR-II window could provide deeper penetration depth and higher exposure to laser over NIR-I. However, the traditional application of excitation light is still in the NIR-I window. In view of the excellent imaging and therapeutic capabilities of NIR-II window, we have demonstrated a simple polyoxometalate (POM) clusters (molecular formula: (Na)n(PMo12O40) or (NH4+)n(PMo12O40)), which integrates NIR-II photoacoustic imaging and NIR-II photothermal therapy into an “all-in-one” theranostic nanoplatform, and could be used for PA imaging-guided photothermal therapy in the NIR-II window. In vivo experiments demonstrate that the POM clusters with good water solubility and biocompatibility were effective to kill tumor without recurrence and metastasis under 1064 nm laser illumination.

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